What Causes Kidney Failure
Acute kidney or renal failure is when the kidney filtration process suddenly becomes compromised. In this case, the kidneys are unable to do their job properly. Over twenty-six million Americans are living with kidney disease.
The kidneys are located in the posterior part of the abdomen. They are about four to five inches in length and are bean shaped.
Cortex is the exterior layer of the parenchyma, which contains connective tissues.
Filtration takes place in the Glomeruli, convoluted tubules.
Medulla is closest to the center of the kidney and is responsible for the filtration and concentration of wastes. It is divided into two renal pyramids.
Plural Calyces is the collection area.
The kidneys are the filtering system and work twenty-hours a day to filter waste out of the human blood. They also use homeostasis to balance fluid volume and minerals in the body. The kidneys also produce erythropoietin, which sends a signal to the bone marrow to produce red blood cells. Other important functions include blood pressure regulation and pH (acid-base) balance.
Kidney Impairment Factors
There are several conditions, medications, clotting disorders, and decreased blood flow that impair kidneys and their functions.
Myocardial infarction (heart attack)
Bacterial infection, septicemia, and sepsis
Liver failure and serious illness
Anti-hypertensive medications (high blood pressure medications) and over the counter analgesics (Tylenol, Ibuprofen, and Aleve), chemotherapy, intravenous
Anaphylaxis (serious allergic reaction)
Severe burns, trauma, and complicated surgery
Lupus, Multiple myeloma, blood clots in renal arteries and veins, and plaque buildup
Placenta abruption (separation of the placenta) and placenta previa (completely covers the cervix) can also cause damage to the kidneys.
Decreased appetite, nausea, and vomiting
Fatigue, sluggish motor activity
Tremors and seizure activity
Mental status and mood changes, insomnia (inability to sleep)
Melena (tarry stools)
Dyspnea (shortness of breath)
Anuria (decreased urine output), nocturia (excessive urination at night), oliguria (little to no urine)
Persistent Hiccupping, angina (chest pain)
Glomerular filtration rate (serum creatinine test)
Arterial blood gas (measures pH, oxygen, and carbon dioxide levels in the blood)
Albuminuria-to-creatinine ratio (detects albumin or protein in the urine)
Acute renal failure is normally treated with renal dialysis (artificial kidney machine). In most cases the kidney function will return to normal over a specific period of time.
Diuretics (Lasix) will be ordered to promote the kidneys to rid the body of sodium and water.