Anatomy Of The Foot

The feet are very important for locomotion and balance. Each foot contains 26 major bones, which are linked to 33 joints and soft tissue structures. Tendons connect muscles to bones, while ligaments connect bones to bones.

Dorsal Foot

  • Phalanges are bones that are connected by bending joints. The distal phalange holds the toenail and a fleshy pad, which is located underneath the toe. The big toe has two phalanges, while the other toes have three. Each bone articulates with the intermediate phalange.
  • Extensor Tendons are tough, fibrous tissues that is  responsible for pulling the toes up and connects the anterior, lower leg muscles to the toes.
  • Peroneus Brevis Tendon is one of a pair of peroneal tendons that run along the lateral portion of the ankle, behind the fibula. Brevis (short) tendon connects the fifth metatarsal. Responsible for everting (turning outward) the ankle.
  • Peroneus Longus Tendon is one of a pair of peroneal tendons that begins higher and runs down the sole of the foot and connects the first metatarsal on the opposite site. Responsible for everting (turning outward) the ankle.
  • Calcaneus is the heel bone.
  • Extensor Retinaculum band of ligaments located on the medial side of the ankle and connects the tibia and fibula.
  • Fibula is the calf bone (lateral side of tibia).
  • Tibia is the shinbone, which is bigger and stronger than the fibula.
  • Achilles Tendon is the heel cord and located on the posterior portion of the leg.
  • Talus (ankle bone) is responsible for weight transfer across the ankle joint.
  • Cuboid Bone cube shaped tarsal bone that connects the foot to the ankle
  • Tarsometatarsal Joint is located at the base of the metatarsal articulates.

Plantar Foot

  • Plantar Metatarsal Arteries (total of four) arise from the plantar arch and extends between the metatarsals. They are responsible for supplying blood to the toes.
  • Common Plantar Digital Nerves
  • Sesamoid Bone are two pea shaped bones embedded in the ball of the foot. Used for pushing off, when walking, jogging, and running.
  • Intrinsic Muscles located in the foot. Two groups dorsal and plantar.
  • Plantar Fascia is a dense band of tissue that extends the sole of the foot and connects the heel to the toes.
  • Medial Calcaneal Nerve tibial nerve branches
  • Fat Pad become thinner over time
  • Lateral Calcaneal Nerve sural nerve branches