Part I: The Anatomy Of The Leg

The human leg anatomy is very extensive and consists of several regions including the gluteal, hip, thigh, and foot, but most individuals refer to the leg in sections, upper and lower. The leg has many significant uses including ambulating, standing, jumping, jogging, kicking, and bending. Most or all of these activities are part of the mobility function. While athletes, sports trainers, and medical professionals are well aware of the human leg anatomy, others are not. Below, you will find everything that you need to know about the human leg anatomy and much more.
Bones

Fibula

The fibula is better known to most, as the long, thin calf bone, since it is located on the lateral (sidewise) side of the tibia. It extends from the patella (knee) to the talus.

  • Function includes stabilizing the talus (ankle bone) and supports the tibia.
  • Lateral Malleolus is the distal end of the fibula and the lateral side of the talus.
  • Fibular Notch is located at the distal end of the fibula, joins up with the tibia, at this point.
  • Head of Fibula is the rounded enlargement at the proximal end of the fibula.

The fibula is slightly smaller than the tibia, but is still very important.

Tibia

The tibia is better known to most, as the shin or shank bone. Its location is abutting the fibula, on the medial side of the leg.

  • Function includes weight bearing and plays a huge role in mobility.
  • Medial Malleolus is the distal end of the tibia and the medial side of the talus.
  • Tibial Tuberosity is the bony protrusion at the proximal end of the tibia.
  • Medial Condyle is one of two knobby projections on the distal end of the tibia. This one is slightly larger than the other.
  • Lateral Condyle is one of two knobby projections on the distal end of the tibia.

Patella

The patella is better known to most, as the kneecap. It articulates with the femur and is the largest sesamoid bone (small bone shaped like a sesame seed) in the human body.

  • Function includes knee extension.

Femur

The femur is better known to most, as the thigh bone. It is by far the strongest and longest bone in the body and requires a lot of force to fracture it.

  • Function includes weight support and allows motion of the lower extremity.
  • Lateral Condyle is one of two bony projections on the distal end of the femur.
  • Medial Condyle is one of the two bony projections on the distal end of the femur.
  • Femoral Head is located at the posterior end of the femur and forms the ball and socket hip joint.

Pelvis

The pelvis is located in the lower abdomen and is made up of a powerful ring of bones. Women are known to have a larger pelvis than men, which is most likely due to childbirth.

  • Function includes protecting the pelvic organs. It is also responsible for anchoring the hip, thigh, and abdominal muscles.
  • Ilium makes up a superior large portion of the pelvis, as it is the largest and broadest pelvis bone.
  • Sacrum is the posterior portion of the pelvis. It is triangular shaped and located at the distal end of the spine.
  • Coccyx or tail bone is made up of three-five separate or fused vertebrae.
  • Right & Left Coxal or hip bones.
  • Obturator Foramen is the extremely large opening in the pelvis. It is made by the ischium and the pubis bones.
  • Ischium is the inferior (lower) dorsal (upper side) of the coxal.
  • Pubis Bones is the smallest hip bone.

The ilium, ischium, and the pubis bones join to form the acetabulum (hip joint).