Infectious diseases are always linked to a single microorganism or germ. Germs can be found nearly anywhere including the soil, water, and air, which means that you cannot avoid them, under any circumstances. It is estimated that infectious diseases are linked to more global deaths than any other factor (CDC).
Germs Transmission Modes
Germs are spread through direct, droplet, and food contamination. From animals to humans, hands to food, human to human, inanimate object to human, and through contact with body fluids are some examples of the way that germs are spread.
This is why it is very important to wash your hands, after toileting, sneezing, playing with animals, and before eating or preparing foods.
If you are unfamiliar with how long it takes to kill germs, you should recite the alphabet, while you are washing your hands.
A microorganism can survive anywhere from 1-2 minutes and up to 24-hours, outside of the body. The range is based on the inanimate object and surface type, with harder surfaces being the most favorable for the germ.
Different Types of Microorganisms
- There are basically 4 types of microorganisms or germs including:
- Bacteria – cause diseases, but specific types produce antibiotics (streptomycin). They live in the human and animal gastrointestinal tract and other areas, along with the roots of specific types of plants. Bacterium is capable of producing and multiplying very quickly.
- Viruses – consists of genetic material and utilize their own cells to multiply.
- Fungus – are classed under eukaryotic organisms. These primitive plants include mushrooms, yeasts, molds, and mildew.
- Protozoa – is a parasite, which means it must have a living host to feed off of and live in to survive. These one-celled animals are linked to malaria and amoebiasis.
Types of Infectious Diseases
There is a long infectious disease list that are linked to these microorganisms including:
- Amebiasis – amoebiasis (protozoa)
- Anaplasmosis – bacterium anaplasma phagocytophilum
- Anthrax – bacterium bacillus anthracis
- Babesiosis – protozoal piroplasms (tick-borne)
- Botulism – bacterium clostridium botulinum
- Brucellosis – bacterium brucella (zoonotic)
- Burkholderia Mallei – aerobic gram-negative bacillus
- Campylobacteriosis – bacterium campylobacter
- Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae – gram-negative bacterium superbugs
- Chancroid – bacterium haemophilus ducreyi (sexually transmitted)
- Chlamydia – bacterium chlamydia trachomatis
- Ciguatera – dinoflagellates
- Clostridium difficile colitis – bacterium
- Coccidioidomycosis – coccidioides immitis fungus
- Creutzfeldt-Jacob – transmissible spongiform encephalopathies
- Cryptosporidiosis – protozoa phylum apicomplexa
- Cyclosporiasis – protozoan dayetanensis
- Dengue – viral aedes aegypti mosquito
- Diphtheria – bacterium corynebacterium diphtheriae
- Escherichia Coli – bacterium
- Ebola Hemorrhagic fever – ebolavirus
- Encephalitis – (West Nile virus)
- Enterovirus – positive-sense single-stranded virus
- Giardiasis – glagellate protozoa giardia lamblia
- Gonorrhea – Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacterium
- Hepatitis A – HAV (hepatitis virus
- Hep B – HBV
- Hep C – HBC
- Herpes – HSV -1 and HSV – 2
- Herpes Zoster – varicella-zoster virus
- Histoplasmosis – dimorphic fungus
- HIV (AIDS) – human immunodeficiency virus
- Legionnaires – bacterium legionella
- Hansens – bacterium mycobacterium leprae
- Listeria – bacterium listeria monocytogenes 1
- Lyme Disease – bacterium borrelia burgdorferi
- Malaria – protozoan plasmodium
- Measles – morbillivirus
- Mumps – virus
- Pediculosis – pediculus humanus capitis
- Pelvic inflammatory disease – gonorrhea or chlamydia bacteria
- Pertusis – bordetella pertussis bacterium
- Bubonic Plague – Yersinia pestis
- Pneumococcal disease – streptococcus pneumonia bacterium
- Polio – poliovirus
- Psittacosis – chlamydia psittaci bactrium
- Rabies – virus
- Rocky Mt. Spotted Fever – bacterium rickettsia rickettsii
- Rubella – rubivirus
- Salmonella – bacteria
- Scabies – sarcoptes scabiei
- Shingellosis – shingella bacterium
- Smallpox – bariola major and variola minor viruses
- MRSA – methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aereus bacteria
- Streptoccocal Disease – streptococcus agalactiae bacterium
- Syphilis – bacterium treponema pallidum
- Tetanus – clostridium tentani bactrium
- TB – mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium
- Typhoid Fever – salmonella typhi bacterium
- Typhus – rickettsia typhi and rickettsia prowazekii bacteria
- Chickenpox – varicella zoster virus
- Cholera – vibrio cholera bacterium
- Yellow fever – flavivirus
All of the above are examples of infectious diseases.
Microorganisms reside within the environment, humans, or animals. There are many ways to prevent the spread of these germs including immunizations, antibiotics, hand washing, and only eat foods that have been properly prepared.
Avoid eating from portable food vans that frequent large cities or busy intersections, especially in foreign countries.
Keep your mouth and nose fully covered with tissue, when you are coughing and sneezing. Wear prophylactic contraceptives or condoms, when having sex with someone other than your spouse or significant other, because it is not possible to look at someone’s appearance and determine, whether or not they have a sexually transmitted disease.